SOLAS was leading short term activities within the European Space Agency (ESA) framework and within the International Geophere-Biosphere Programme Fast Track Initiative (IGBP FTI) framework. Here, one can find information related to activities which ended.

SCOR Working Groups

SCOR WG 140 on Biogeochemical Exchange Processes at the Sea-Ice Interfaces (BEPSII)

This SCOR WG contributed to the SOLAS Mid-Term Strategy initiative on Sea-ice biogeochemistry and interactions with the atmosphere

Co-chairs: Jacqueline Stefels (The Netherlands) and Nadja Steiner (Canada)

Other Full Members:Gerhard Dieckmann (Germany), Elena Golubeva (Russia), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Lynn Russell (USA), Paul Shepson (USA), Letizia Tedesco (Finland), Jean-Louis Tison (Belgium), and Martin Vancoppenolle (France)

Associate Members: Kevin Arrigo (USA), Jeff Bowman (USA), Clara Deal (USA), Bruno DeLille (Belgium), Scott Elliot (USA), Michael Fischer (Germany), Agneta Fransson (Norway), Francois Fripiat (Belgium), Claire Hughes (UK), Delphine Lannuzzel (Australia), Sang Heon Lee (Korea), Maurice Levasseur (Canada), Brice Loose (USA), Paty Matrai (USA), Christine Michel (Canada), Lisa Miller (Canada), Jun Nishioka (Japan), Daiki Nomura (Norway). Janne-Markus Rintala (Finland), Benjamin Saenz (USA), Veronique Schoemann (Netherlands), Lise-Lotte Soerensen (Denmark), David Thomas (UK), Maria van Leeuwe (Netherlands), Roland von Glasow (UK), Chris Zappa (USA), and JiaYun Zhou (Belgium)

Terms of Reference

  1. Standardisation of methods for data intercomparison.
  2. Summarizing existing knowledge in order to prioritise processes and model parameterizations.
  3. Upscaling of processes from 1D to earth system models.
  4. Analysing the role of sea ice biogeochemistry in climate simulations

Approved: September 2011

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR

Meetings and Updates


  • Meiners, K.M., M. Vancoppenolle, S. Thanassekos, G.S. Dieckmann, D.N. Thomas, J.-L. Tison, K.R. Arrigo, D.L. Garrison, A. McMinn, D. Lannuzel,  P. van derMerwe, K.M. Swadling,W.O. Smith Jr., I.Melnikov, and B. Raymond. 2012. Chlorophyll a in Antarctic sea ice from historical ice core data.  Geophysical Research Letters 39:L21602, doi:10.1029/2012GL053478.
  • Steiner, N.S., J.R. Christian, K.D. Six, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai. 2014. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 119:1-16. doi: 10.1002/2013JC009069
  • Vancoppenolle, M., K.M. Meiners, C. Michel, L. Bopp, F. Brabant, G. Carnat, B. Delille, D. Lannuzel, G. Madec, S. Moreau, J.-L. Tison, P. van der Merwe.2012. Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: emerging views and challenges. Quaternary Science Reviews 79: 207-230.
  • Biogeochemical Exchange Processes at Sea-Ice Interfaces (BEPSII) - Special issue of Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene

Data and Metadata



SCOR WG 131 on The legacy of in situ Iron Enrichment: Data Compilation and Modelling

Co-chairs: Philip Boyd (New Zealand) and Dorothee Bakker (UK)

Terms of Reference

  • Compilation of a database for open access (via the Internet) of the following experiments:

    • the 1999-2001 era (IronEx-1, IronEx-2, SOIREE, EisenEx, SEEDS-1), plus 1992 S.O. JGOFS;
    • the 2002 experiments (SOFeX-North, SOFeX-South, SERIES); and
    • the 2004 experiments (Eifex, SEEDS-2, SAGE, FeeP), plus natural fertilizations CROZEX, KEOPS

This effort will include a commonly agreed data policy for users to best acknowledge the original data producers (e.g., by offering co-authorship and perhaps assignment of digital object identifiers for individual data sets). Obviously, a practical description of methods used, calibration etc. (so-called metadata) will also be included. In essence, the WG members are committed to send their data files to thecommon data centre, and encourage their colleagues in any given experiment to do the same. Finally, an official data publication or publication(s) will be placed in a suitable venue, for example, in the special issue on the SCOR WG (see item 4. below) and in Eos (Transactions Am. Geophys. Union). In 2006-2007 efforts are already underway for compilation and rescue of the EisenEx dataset, also there is very good progress for SEEDS-2, SERIES, CROZEX and KEOPS. However, the statement in the original proposal that no meeting would be necessary to achieve the first term of reference was overly optimistic. It appears that a face-to-face meeting sponsored by SCOR or some other internationally recognized organization is necessary to work out the details of bringing together the data sets in a way that will make it possible to achieve the other terms of reference.

Approved: August 2007

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR


Data Portal:

ESA projects

In February 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) opened a call "Support To Science Element (STSE)", an element of the Earth Observation Envelop Program (EOEP-3) to both public and private institutions. The SOLAS community submitted one proposal to each of the ESA call and was successful with three themes.

Sea spray aerosol production:

Acronym: OSSA (Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol Production)
Duration: 24 months
Total grant: 350 000 Euros
Ending date: Oct 2013
Principal Investigator and co-PI: Gerrit de Leeuw (FMI), subcontractors National Univ of Ireland Galway (NUIG: Colin O'Dowd) TNO (Astrid Manders)

Sources and sinks of climatically-active gases in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) systems:

Duration: 18 months
Total grant: 150 000 Euros
Ending date: Oct 2013
Principal Investigator and co-PI: Christoph Garbe, Véronique Garçon, André Butz, Boris Dewitte, Aurélien Paulmier, Joel Sudre, Isabelle Dadou and Hussein Yahia
Report: Activities of 2012

OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases Evolution project:

Acronym: OceanFlux GHG Evolution (Oceanflux Greenhouse Gases Evolution)
Duration: 24 months
Total grant: 300 000 Euros
Ending date: Nov 2017
Principal Investigator and co-PI: Jamie Shutler (UoE), David Woolf (HWU), Bertrand Chapron (IFREMER), Andy Watson (UoE), Phil Nightingale (PML), Jacek Piskozub (IOPAN), Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy (ERI).
Report: see website

A workshop took place 6-9 September 2016 in Brest, France, entitled 'Air-Sea Gas Flux : Progress and Future Prospects'. Poster and presentations are available at
The report is available here.

Last update August 2017--------------------

IGBP Fast Track Initiatives

In May 09, the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) launched two fast track initiatives (FTI) proposed by SOLAS and other IGBP core projects. Both FTI were in collaboration with and co-sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR).

Upper Ocean Nutrient Limitation: processes, patterns and potential for change (2009-2011)

The scientific coordinators are Mark Moore (NOCS, UK) and Matt Mills (Stanford Uni, USA). The contributing projects are GEOTRACES and IMBER.
Studies conducted during the past few decades have demonstrated that the productivity of the upper oceans is limited by the availability of a range of nutrients including nitrogen, iron and phosphorus. This, in turn, affects the storage of carbon in the oceans. However, several aspects remain to be fully understood.

FTI materials available:

Outcomes of this FTI contributes to the SOLAS Mid-Term Strategy initiative on Atmospheric control of nutrient cycling and production in the surface ocean


Megacities and the Coastal Zone: air-sea interactions (2009-2011)

The scientific coordinators are Roland von Glasow (UEA, UK), Tim Jickells (UEA, UK), Tong Zhu (Peking University, China), Ramesh Ramachandran (Institute for Ocean Management, India) and Josef Pacyna (Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway). The contributing projects are IGAC and LOICZ.
As the world’s population and urbanisation increase simultaneously, so does the number of cities with over 10 million inhabitants – megacities. Many megacities, such as Mumbai and Los Angeles, are located in coastal regions. This juxtaposition leads to particular environmental consequences that have a direct impact on the health and prosperity of people living in and around such cities. The environmental and ecological effects of the alteration of coastlines and input of sewage from cities have received much attention over the years. But the effect of urban atmospheric emissions on the adjacent coastal waters and that of emissions from coastal waters on urban air quality have received lesser attention.

FTI materials available:

Last update April 2013--------------------

- last update August 2017 -